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Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

Comprehensive Meta Analysis
http://www.meta-analysis.com/   Biostat, Inc.





什麼是分析元(Meta分析)
我們是CMA軟件國內正式授權經銷商

Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 2.0 最新的使用手冊
http://www.doc88.com/p-19912868509.html


 

What is a Meta-Analysis?

Meta-analysis is the statistical procedure for combining data from multiple studies. When the treatment effect (or effect size) is consistent from one study to the next, meta-analysis can be used to identify this common effect.  When the effect varies from one study to the next, meta-analysis may be used to identify the reason for the variation. 

Why do a Meta-Analysis?

Decisions about the utility of an intervention or the validity of a hypothesis cannot be based on the results of a single study, because results typically vary from one study to the next. Rather, a mechanism is needed to synthesize data across studies.  Narrative reviews had been used for this purpose, but the narrative review is largely subjective (different experts can come to different conclusions) and becomes impossibly difficult when there are more than a few studies involved.  Meta-analysis, by contrast, applies objective formulas (much as one would apply statistics to data within a single study), and can be used with any number of studies.

Meta-Analysis in applied and basic research

Pharmaceutical companies use meta-analysis to gain approval for new drugs, with regulatory agencies sometimes requiring a meta-analysis as part of the approval process. Clinicians and applied researchers in medicine, education, psychology, criminal justice, and a host of other fields use meta-analysis to determine which interventions work, and which ones work best. Meta analysis is also widely used in basic research to evaluate the evidence in areas as diverse as sociology, social psychology, sex differences, finance and economics, political science, marketing, ecology and genetics, among others.

Where does Meta-Analysis fit in the research process?

Publications

Many journals encourage researchers to submit systematic reviews and meta-analyses that summarize the body of evidence on a specific question, and this approach is replacing the traditional narrative review. Meta-analyses also play supporting roles in other papers.  For example, a paper that reports results for a new primary study might include a meta-analysis in the introduction to synthesize prior data and help to place the new study in context.

Planning new studies

Meta-analyses can play a key role in planning new studies. The meta-analysis can help identify which questions have already been answered and which remain to be answered, which outcome measures or populations are most likely to yield significant results, and which variants of the planned intervention are likely to be most powerful.

Grant applications

Meta-analyses are used in grant applications to justify the need for a new study.  The meta-analysis serves to put the available data in context and to show the potential utility of the planned study. The graphical elements of the meta-analysis, such as the forest plot, provide a mechanism for presenting the data clearly, and for capturing the attention of the reviewers. Some funding agencies now require a meta-analysis of existing research as part of the grant application to fund new research.


為什麼做了Meta分析?

決定對公用事業的干預或一個假設的有效性不能基於一個單一的研究結果,因為結果通常從一個研究未來。相反,一個機制,需要綜合各研究的數據。敘事評論已被用於此目的,但很大程度上是主觀的敘事審查(不同的專家,可以得出不同的結論),並成為不可能困難時,有超過涉及少數的研究。Meta分析,通過對比,適用於客觀的公式(就像一個將適用於在一個單一的研究數據統計),並且可以使用任意數量的研究。

在應用研究和基礎研究的Meta分析

製藥公司使用薈萃分析,以獲得新的藥品監管機構的審批過程的一部分,有時需要作為一項薈萃分析,批准。臨床應用研究,並在醫療,教育,心理學,刑事司法和其他領域的主機使用薈萃分析,以確定哪些干預措施起作用,哪些工作最好。Meta分析也被廣泛用於基礎研究,社會學,社會心理學,性別差異,金融和經濟學,政治學,市場營銷,生態學和遺傳學等不同的領域中的證據,除其他外,評估。

凡不適合Meta分析在研究過程中?

刊物

許多期刊,鼓勵研究人員提出一個具體問題,總結證據的系統評價和薈萃分析,這種方法取代了傳統的敘事審查。Meta分析在其他報紙也起到支持作用。例如,文件,報告為一個新的初步研究結果可能包括在引進的薈萃分析,綜合之前的數據,幫助放置在上下文中的新的研究。

規劃新的研究

Meta分析可以在規劃新的研究中發揮了關鍵作用。該薈萃分析可以幫助確定哪些問題已經回答,有待回答,這成果的措施或群體最有可能取得顯著成效,並計劃干預的變種可能是最強大的。

撥款申請

Meta分析用於資助申請的理由需要一項新的研究。該薈萃分析服務,在上下文中提供的數據和計劃的研究顯示潛在效用。薈萃分析的圖形元素,如森林情節,提供的數據清楚地呈現和評論注意捕捉機制。現在需要一些資助機構的撥款申請,資助新的研究的一部分,現有研究的薈萃分析。
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